September 11, 2019 posted by

This was the position taken by the New Order government in the eighties, when TVRI was banned from broadcasting commercials because it was thought they would create unrealistic aspirations of material wealth in poor populations, much as private television stations are now accused. Her research interests include Asia, media, identity, and discourse. Foreignizing production practices can be observed in a variety of other program genres as well. One program I spent some time studying was called Impresario , an up-market variety program named after the access code of the international long distance telephone company that sponsored it. They may know they want to target children between five and ten years old from their marketing data, for example, but the translation from that knowledge to specific changes in program content, or in the development of new programs, is subject to countless other formal and narrative frameworks, as well as historic trends, coming from the production industry. But Ratna Mahadi is emblematic of the profession, in that she comes from a wealthy, cosmopolitan, and international background, more comfortable with English than Indonesian, and with personal tastes that, unsurprisingly, reflect both the overt content and the habitus of that childhood.

But rather than an intentional use of foreign constellations for the purpose of invoking domestically particular meanings in audiences, this foreign positioning appeared to be an inadvertent by-product of the process. So, he used Cantonese and all the students made fun of it. Their kitchen is always combined with the living room. Become a member to access additional data Start your free trial. This approach is particularly appropriate to the Indonesian context, as this political- economic awareness is useful in highlighting the underlying agendas of national language standardization programs, which often depend on a public discourse of efficiency and egalitarianism, but that may in fact mask relations of power and exacerbate disparities of cultural and economic capital see Woolard , ; Errington But the interests of private television are quite different from those of the academy, and all the translators and programming executives I spoke with spoke of seamless domestication as their ultimate goal. He did not appear particularly interested in talking about the subject per say, but rather framed his responses in terms of his cleverness at identifying and incorporating new and prestigious constellations into the program. Gill , Kosnik , Wallace forthcoming.

It is the function of such languages to facilitate contact between groups without constituting their respective social cohesiveness; and, as a result, communication in these languages tends to be severely restricted to specific topics or types of interaction. Asia Release 18 April Domesticating translations smooth away differences of language and culture to the extent possible, while foreignizing translations conserve xnak even exaggerate these differences.

In keeping with her approach, I am putting forward that television viewers in Indonesia are often, by default, put in a position where they are encouraged—through form and narrative—to identify with certain characters, relationships and ideologies. This betawwi particularly important as it feeds into and articulates various national and regional stereotypes either held by producers, or which they believe will play well among Indonesian audiences.

The greatest insights were drawn from spending time with marketing department executives at the stations, and conducting interviews at several advertising agencies. But by it had become the fully viable, universally acknowledged national language, native to relatively few, but clearly ascendant over hundreds of ethnic languages spoken among more than two hundred million Indonesians.


The availability of television as an advertising medium is even more critical in developing countries, where literacy rates and print readership are generally lower.

Indeed, by eschewing all common variations of the language that are variously used in vernacular speech across the country, the government has ensured that BIBB remains a regionless language that no one is likely to feel comfortable speaking. Falcon Pictures, Indonesia Because the appearance of popularity is enough to secure advertising revenue, it is this appearance that is sought.

He did not appear particularly interested in talking about the subject per say, but rather framed his responses in terms of his cleverness at identifying and incorporating new and prestigious constellations into the program.

Based on general ratings trends, it would appear that urban audiences vudeo in tune with this grammar of form and narrative established by early producers. Late and rapid opening of market. Directed by Victor Zwiers. Although nearly all the productions I observed focused exclusively on domestic, Indonesian travel destinations13, they retained this theme in an essentially unmodified fashion.

Stay connected with contact details for overindustry professionals and companies. The Si Doel program remains unique in its heavy use of the Jakarta dialect, but watching the program allows one to see some of the same patterns that are visible in more conventional sinetron.

Whereas with foreign programs the issue is whether to dub or subtitle, with Ketoprak Humor, the issue is simply what language to have actors speak. In order to get this choice approved by his superiors, who were well aware betzwi the frequent protests that have been directed at television stations—usually by religious 19 It is interesting that increasing amounts of media content are passing through regional hubs, such as Singapore and Hong Kong, before entering less-cosmopolitan destination markets.

Beyond the settings of sinetron, there are several issues that foreignize the programs to audiences. Nevertheless, this research contributed greatly to my understanding of industry dynamics, some of which is explicated above, as well as in the second chapter and the introduction. This is in part because Indonesian is itself a state-sponsored language with deep roots in the Dutch colonial administration of the region. In a sinetron, the relationship is similar, with protagonist characters almost universally of a world that is—as we have seen—foreign both in cultural norms, styles and overwhelming wealth.

We know the latest trends. Although she claimed to have concealed such editing from higher ups, she also said that she considered what she did to be a service to Indonesia The difficult task of the translator is further constrained by the requirement that their finished texts be in Bahasa Indonesia yang Baik dan Benar hereafter BIBBwhich, popularly understood, includes virtually no latitude for the vernacular variations and abbreviations used by most Indonesians in everyday speech.

I take a non-judgmental approach to derivation because I feel an activist perspective undermines a deeper understanding of the process and because Bwtawi endeavor not to interject my ibrayim preferences over those of Indonesian audiences ; but because it is one of the more noteworthy aspects of the national media production field in Jakarta, it is important to break down some of the more significant factors that have contributed to its use as a powerful tool by the industry.


First-run programs that are stripped in the US include most non-primetime gameshows, talk shows, and soapoperas. Anak Muda Punya Mau The most interesting part of the broadcast for me, however, was a half-hour, youth oriented betaw program eoisode Anak Muda Punya Mau.

Indeed, many of their personal tastes are leagues away from the prototypical Indonesian television viewer — for example one programmer confided to me his love for the British historical comedy Black Adder, the humor of which relies not only on a deep cultural knowledge of England and Europe, but a developed appreciation for sarcasm—a comedic style that virtually never appears on Indonesian programs. The downward spiral of the stations TPI and AnTeve act as cautionary tales and ongoing reminders that disaster is potentially just around the corner.

The rise of large production houses such as Ibrahimm Plus further contributed to the emergence of a more cut-throat business environment.

Watching Si Doel

Different ibrshim mobilized their own sometimes conflicting cultural logics in translating foreign TV texts. To an extent, certain foreign languages enter into this ideologically rooted prestige system as well, with English clearly favored as the language vireo international business and education, along with ideologies of modernity and cosmopolitanism. Beyond the ability annak powerful programmers to intuit or discover the desires of key audience demographics, however, their high profile role in the industry has dramatic repercussions in itself.

On the one hand, they clearly presume an almost infinitely wealthy protagonist, and will shy away from essentially no travel service based on price alone. The tastes of cosmopolitan programmers, often with no experience in the industry, were trusted.

The high esteem in which the ihrahim is held by some important groups, however, is hinged to some degree on its continuing use of Javanese.

My attention was first brought to these programs, which—unlike most programs I spent time investigating—are not particularly popular, when I began to see them occasionally broadcast during less-watched hours of the day.

Watching Si Doel – Television, Language and Identity in Contemporary Indonesia

I watch many programs of this type in my travels abroad, and I know what will work with the Indonesian people. Thus the rural character, though he is the lead, is represented as the odd man out, and though he is morally virtuous, his mental disability further distances him from identification with the audience and again signals a connection between rural origins and stupidity.

Extreme angles were used, and the film was sped up. The role of class-cultural tastes is nowhere so prominent as in the ranks of station programmers. I was accustomed to seeing U.