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XXIX , Pt. Im Dom zu Sankt-Mareien. Nor shall I believe it imitated from a foreign source in any of its essential phases. O Tod, du mitleidloser, Was tat ich dir zu Leide? And the nature- introductions? Who would say that the mischievous spirit of such spottlieder so avoided the vocative case of address, so avoided the second-personal note of direct apostrophe, that the narrative third person of the preterit indicative was alone felt to answer? We are merely to try to make it as reasonable to believe there was a Latin profane lyric at a certain time, as to believe there was not one.

XXXVI , p. What are these but no uncertain indications that we regard the Dark Ages as a dimly lighted nursery in which man spent his infancy, babbling and prattling naively as children will. Du bist min, ich bin din goes into pigeonhole c , reunion. I, part 2, , p. The merely numerical question as to how many men in Charles’s realm participated in this ” renaissance ” is as instructive in its suggestiveness as the similar query concerning the number of children affected by the Slaughter of the Innocents. La nonain se gaimentoit, Regardait aval un preit, Vit lou moinne qui venoit, Qui avoit son frot esteit. What care I for nightingale? The Latin dance ballad of the year discovered by Schroder was previously known to Du Me”ril from the MS of an English translation of Grosseteste’s Manuel depechie about

Thumb the electric switch of this same illumining light, and suddenly becomes Mediaeval Renaissance Culminating Point Number One. Jahrhundertp.

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Our gaze, dissatisfied with the meager story of the picture, is ever hunting beyond and behind for trace of the fulness, of the ruddy color, which we feel to belong in some measure to any age. Let us take up our Minnesangs Friihling edd. The author of the first European novel need not have got his love-message from any of the three places above mentioned, nor even necessarily from a fourth place suggested by Kogel Gesch.

Pechkohlraben- schwarz is the background of thunder-cloud given five centuries of German life, that the epic giants of the vOlkerwanderungen may iCharles Whibley, The Pageantry of Lifep. He did not believe that the mediaeval lyric grew by a series of pendulum swings from a lower stage of verse, less native and less lyric.

Would you deny that aspirations of sense less idealized in tone paralleled these?

So far as we may judge from unavailing capitulary and synodical fulmination, they were rife enough in every century from the fifth to the tenth. In the thirteenth century we read the prayer of a nun to the Virgin 7 that she may be freed from the temptations of earthly passion also the story of how the nun, forgetful of her vows, tried to seduce the clerk. The first real attempt to meet this demand is the anonymous study on ” Mediaeval Latin Poetry,” Christian Remembrancer, Vol.

Thus the minnesinger has been made to steal his provision from many sources he was ever influenced, it seems, from without rather than from within.

Such is the Theory of Continuity as applied to the lyric. Also, some information presented might not apply to your situation. Io gli parlai d’ amore: How may we then hold so simple a creed as that laid down in the opening sentence of this note? Most of all I was interested in the con- tention of Ernst Martin that a popularizing Latin minnesang had preceded its German model, but I hesitated to accept this thesis for two reasons: O spirit of spring, hear thou my prayer and dismiss it not ; ‘spite bloom and flower and verdure my soul swoons within me 1″ If this be not the very minting of popular poetry, what may it bet Not over thirty years ago a Tuscan boy sang as he trimmed a hedge, the first quatrain of a love-ballad so similar to this Latin plaint as to be almost identical: We learn from it that Latin was the vehicle for any serious attempt at authorship in this wastest time ; that a language modeled on Vergil and Pru- dentius had become flexible enough to describe the environing world of men and nature.


Now, who shall find in such words as these a fit describing of the satire, of the love for springtide and women which he remembers in early mediaeval Latin lyrics 7 Who will be so blinded by the study of form as to regard as jocund “the concentrated scandal against a venerated sex of the De conguge non ducenda “f A more patient insight will recognize the moral aim and the religious significance of this philippic. Who has not heard of the mediaeval renaissance which Scherer erected of the dry bones of Notker, the Waltharilied, and Ros- witha?

Verses these meters are which hang suspended and without stress on the lips of their awe-struck utterers.

Poetry vanishes when the mood which gave it birth has fled; its form remains for the after-born to study and muse on, but its spirit is gone.

We seem to be listening to muffled tales of the House of Atreus when our ears are met by notes like these. The ingenuous German minstrel has also been thought to be much shaken by the Byzan- tine ceremonial and etiquette introduced by Theophania. The goliard songs are clearly written for melodies, it is said, and some of them are very complicated in structure, suggesting part-songs and madrigals with curious interlacing of long and short lines, double and single rhymes, recurrent ritornelles, and so forth.

A lover in his rooms awaits the coming of a tardy mistress. Ceremonial and clothes, the external trappings of soul and body, the furniture of existence, are ours perhaps for the asking. What of the voices which have not pene- trated to us from the tenth century, or of those which we have heard, but not as yet understood?

If the minstrel could quote scriptural authority for his missa de potatoribus and his evangelium decium et lusorum, if he had the pattern of hymns to the Virgin for his Ave!

Let us patiently consider a theory of efflorescence built of such slender materials as these, even if it is amusing to witness the few known literary values shift rapidly 12 PHILIP Fwlcko. And, parolds is more important, the spirit and color of some of it must have found expression in lyric paoles before it was made narrative. For some while all landmarks seemed to be lacking, and much time was lost in falclo here and there in search of tangible beginnings.


Perhaps it was not thought fit for serial publication in the Germania or the Annales. The earliest German 1 We may not stop at this time to dwell on the development of these hypotheses.

When these printed sources of Muller’s songs are found the songs which were later printed in Egeria, as well as those which the poet for obvious reasons suppressed models for certain other poems of Muller’s will come to light.

There are, as we should expect, theories of Provencal and French influence 1 and I have even heard of Slavic traces which darkly shade the writings of Kurenberg and Hausen.

Songs by Falcko

Such a method of progression but describes a circle which brings us back to the original point of departure. Freytag and Seeck, to name but two of the scores who have drawn for us vivid pictures of barbaric Germany, present telling scenes fzlcko lean- ness and famine, brute force and brutish instinct, in these times. Lenormant, Bibliotheque de Vficole des Chartes, I, 1, p. What were the rhapsodical lyrics which adversaries threw into each other’s teeth when Hildebrand and Hadubrand faced each other when Walther of Aquitaine snarled at Hagen when the adultress and the red-haired thief of Ruodlieb stood bare before the multitude at the scaffold’s edge?

What ffalcko this expression took we do not know. XXIXPt.

It is sufficiently confuted by the nature of man himself, and by the realization that all poetry dwells in the sensation of the moment and is originally but a surrendering to it. But as a study of theme such a sentence is vastly misleading. Dum salutat me loquaci Flora supercilio Mente satis jam capaci Claudia coucipio.

They are four in number and follow: For Goethe and Uhland and Heine may be accounted masters of literary technique and artistic expression beyond any presumable tenth-century lyrist, just so surely as they surpass in these respects Reinmar, Walther, and Hausen. ALLEN of certain native attractiveness; gradually, however, cosmopolitan- ism set in, and all the forces of the new culture and of broadening life brought about the tardy bloom of lyric and drama.

Whibley have us believe our parolea was “Then the monster, then the man Tattoo’ d or woaded, winter-clad in skins”? We have theories of oriental influence through the convenient medium of the early i Cf. Here is a pretty case in point: Except purely as a matter of form, is the development of erotic passion arrested at certain stages in a nation’s history, to overflow at other stages the edge of the brimming cup?