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In other words, owing to its connection, or absence of connection with determining factors; dvividham, twofold, it namely cit-sakti, which is perception is said to be of two kinds, as determinate percep- tion and indeterminate perception; the word dvividham is an adverb. Umapati points out that since this cognition depends on the cognition of similarity which is known from the statement of a trustworthy person, upamana could be subsumed in sabda pramana. Of course, the possibility of their being interpolated needs to be examined senously. The Pauskara declares that the dissolution should be admitted to be in an order inverse to that of the creation because the evolutes are causally connected. Introduction 17 sutra, Suprabheda, Ratnatr ay aparlksaT and, with attribution, from the Nyaydmrta, Matahgaparamesvara , Vayavyasamhita, Mrgendra and Siddhantasardvall. The objection is threefold:

And this pre-cognition, which supplies the word that appears in determinate cognition as inseparably connected with the objet, is indeterminate perception. Translation 55 outset as forming part of the accepted pramanas, the proposed general definition being common to inference, etc. Although classification is always presented after the statement of the general definition, if inference, etc. Cit-Sakti, on the other hand, is not such. Now, although a particular sadhya for example, a particular fire perceived in a kitchen is not present in all substrates of the sadhana namely in all smoky places which are substrates of smoke , yet since fireness, etc. His knowledge is perfect, for He is omniscient, free from all sense deficiencies, changeless, cognizer of everything and eternal perceiver of the truth; He is also independent, impartial and com- passionate 61 b a. Umapati discusses and rejects the definition of the Bhattas that pramana is the means to the cognition of a previously unknown -entity, that of the Prabhakaras that all experience 30 Umapati ‘s Commentary on the Pauskarapramanapatala pramana, and that of the Buddhists that uncontradicted cognition, namely the cognition which produces a successful activity, is pramana. The invalidity aprdmdnya of cogni- tion, however, is known extrinsically paratah , i.

The connection of each sense, which is called perception adhyaksais sixfold: Is this cogniton invalid or not?

Umapati explains why comparison upamana and inclusion sambhava need not be admitted as independent pramanas. He also proves, with the Introduction 47 help of scriptural statements, that Siva undertakes dissolution not out of cruelty, but to give respite to selves tired by transmigration, to restore to maya and bindu the inclination to create, and to allow the karma of selves to ripen.

Saiva scripture, on the other hand, shou not be modified in the light of another doctrine, nor should its authority be upheld on the grounds that it conforms to Introduction 45 other scriptures, because it is composed by Siva, who possesses more knowledge than the authors of other scriptures and is, consequently, more authoritative. According to the Pauskara, time-lapsed kdldilta occurs when a reason is attributed to a subject paksa which is contradicted by a pramana. It is therefore stated in the Pauskara that words can only indirectly be traced to the knowledge of Siva.


Thus, they conclude that it is some- thing which can be described neither as absolutely real, nor as absolutely unreal. The primary definition, however, should be understood to be the cit-sakti delimited by the above described intellectual operation namely cognition. It could also be produced from the cognition of the substantive visesyajnana. Umapati specifies that the subtle elements merge into the egoity predominated by tamos, the senses of action karmendriya into the egoity predominated by rajas and the senses of knowledge jnanendriya and manas into the egoity predominated by sattva.

Moreover, according to the Pauskaraindeterminate perception is perceived by the self through vidyd. Only Siva is the means because He decides, out of compassion, to reveal Himself either directly by bestowing His own awareness on the selves, or indirectly through scriptures composed by Him.

Vedic ritualists admit that a substance may be replaced by another similar substance under certain circumstances; for example, in the absence of soma, it may be substituted by putika which resembles soma. Knower, which is consciousness, is not turned to it namely the object of knowledge ; the means of knowledge is turned to it.

They further define experience namely pramana as a cognition which is not memory; 5 in which case, there would be underpervasion of the definition with regard to that part of memory which concerns the cognizer and the cognition. Although Veda and other scriptures are another path anyamdrgathey lead to the bondage of the individual self; the authority of the scriptures composed by Brahma, Visnu and others is limited to the realities tattva admitted in the respective scriptures.

For an object is grasped by the senses, identified by the mind, appropriated by the ego and cognized by the buddhi. It should not be said that qualified perception cannot arise because one of the causes, namely contact of the senses with the qualification, is absent; for contact in the form of a knowledge jHanalaksanaY or of a physical defect 2 is admitted through which the perception of the qualification could arise.

Year: 2015

Epistemological discussions in the Civananacittiyara 13th century Saiva doctrinal work written episofe Tamil, established epistemology as an important subject in Saiva doctrinal works in Tamil. The production of silver in a shell is not contrary to causal function. Introduction 19 apparatus by maya the material cause of the impure realmand which is forced by its karma to function in the universe created out of maya.


In fact, inference is cit-sakti delimited by the cognition of the presence of the reason hetu in the subject paksawhich 34 Umapati ‘s Commentary on the Pauskarapramanapatala cognition is qualified by the cognition of the pervasion vyapti.

The object seized by the mind is then appropriated, that is to say connected with the self grahakasamgatiby the egoity ahanikara and finally, it is apprehended by the intellect. Such is the doubt.

Full text of “tantra-sangrahaH”

Introduction 15 drstantdbhdsa which, are not discussed in the Pauskara. This stand also is acceptable to us. The formless self cannot be reflected in the insentient intellect,- neither can the insentient intellect b ” ,n.

Also cited in the Saivaparibhasa Madras ednp. Umapati agrees that the intellect apprehends that which is sensed by the senses and determined by the mind. Since it is specified that an inference, to be valid, must have a substantive which possesses the thing to be proved, this inference, whose substantive paksa also possesses the absence of the thing to be proved, is not valid.

Translation in-what-is-conjoined samyuktasamavetasamavaya and not samavetasamavaya. The same is to be understood with regard to inference, etc.

Umapad stales that a chapter on. Translation 63 with regard to the specification brought about by objects, is cognized by the consciousness, which is self-luminous. According to the Pauskarathe utterances of Siva are the most authoritative and the veritable means to liberation 21 Siva is the most trustworthy.

See Nyaya- kandallp. Thus, wherever there is smol- there is fire. That one cit- sakti is said to be twofold due to connection with determining factors. According to Umapati, the validity of a cognition signifies the apprehension of an object as qualified by a qualifier which belongs to the object, daaivikam which is cognized as related to the object by the very relation existing between the object and the qualifier. Translation 55 outset as forming part of the accepted pramanas, the proposed general definition being common to inference, etc.

Thus, an indeterminate cognition of absence could arise which could produce a determinate cognition of absence. Introduction 3 establishes sabda as an independent pramdna is strikingly similar to that of the Tattvacintamani.